Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications including cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
- CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION:
- CARDIAC EVENT MONITORS & HOLTER MONITORS
- CARDIOVASCULAR CONSULTATION AND CARE IN YOUR COMMUNITY:
- CT SCAN:
- EKG or ECG
- EXERCISE STRESS TESTING:
- LOOP RECORDERS:
- MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- NUCLEAR STRESS TESTING:
- PREOPERATIVE MEDICAL CLEARANCE:
- VASCULAR ULTRASOUND:
- ATRIAL FIBRILLATION:
- CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS:
- CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE:
- CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE:
- DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS:
- HEART ATTACK:
- HEART MURMURS:
- HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE:
- METABOLIC SYNDROME:
- MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE:
- PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE:
- VARICOSE VEINS AND SPIDER VEINS:
- VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION: